100 B.C.: Julius Caesar is born in Rome (although some reports also list July 13 as his birthdate).
1804: Former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies a day after being shot in a duel with Vice President Aaron Burr.
1817: Author and philosopher Henry David Thoreau, best known for his book "Walden" and his essay "Civil Disobedience," is born in Concord, Mass.
1849: Dolley Madison, the first lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817 as the wife of President James Madison, dies at age 81 in Washington, D.C.
1854: George Eastman, who would go on to found the Eastman Kodak Company and invent roll film, is born in Waterville, N.Y.
1862: The Medal of Honor is authorized by the United States Congress. Pictured are the three current designs for the medal.
1864: Generally recognized as the birthdate of George Washington Carver, inventor of peanut butter and more than 400 plant products, although the exact day and year of his birth are unknown.
1884: Film producer Louis B. Mayer, generally cited as the creator of the "star system" within Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios in its golden years, is born Lazar Meir in Minsk, Russian Empire. Mayer, seen here with Joan Crawford in 1953, was the first person in American history to earn a million-dollar salary and was the highest-paid man in the United States for the nine years from 1937.
1895: Lyricist and playwright Oscar Hammerstein II is born in New York City. Hammerstein won eight Tony Awards and two Academy Awards in his career and is best known for his collaborations with composer Richard Rodgers, including "Oklahoma!," "The King and I," "South Pacific" and "The Sound of Music."
1901: Cy Young wins his 300th game, leading the Boston Americans (soon to be known as the Red Sox) over the Philadelphia A's. Young will win 211 more games, for a total of 511, the most in major-league history.
1908: Actor and comedian Milton Berle, known to millions of viewers as "Uncle Miltie" and "Mr. Television" during TV's golden age, is born Milton Berlinger in New York City. Berle was the first major American television star, hosting NBC's "Texaco Star Theater" comedy-variety show from 1948 to 1955. He started out as a child actor in silent films and moved onto vaudeville, stand-up comedy and radio stardom in the 1920s and 1930s.
1909: Congress approves a resolution proposing the 16th Amendment, which, upon ratification in 1913, establishes the federal income tax.
1910: Charles Rolls, the English engineer and aviator who joined with industrialist Henry Royce to found Rolls-Royce Ltd. in 1906, dies in an air crash when the tail of his Wright Flyer breaks off during a flying display in Bournemouth, England. At the onset of World War I, the company turned from automobiles to the production of much-needed reliable engines for aviation. After the war, Rolls-Royce continued both as a manufacturer of luxury automobiles and airplane engines.
1937: Comedian and actor Bill Cosby, best known for the sitcom "The Cosby Show," is born in Philadelphia, Pa. Cosby, a veteran standup comedian who got his start in the 1960s, is also known for the 1960s action series "I Spy" and creating the educational cartoon comedy series "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids."
1954: The Major League Baseball Players Association, which had organized informally in 1946 as a "players' fraternity," is founded.
1960: The first Etch-A-Sketch rolls off a factory line in Bryan, Ohio.
1962: The Rolling Stones perform their first ever concert, at the Marquee Club in London.
1971: The Australian Aboriginal flag is flown for the first time.
1971: Figure skater Kristi Yamaguchi, who won a gold medal at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, is born in Hayward, Calif. Yamaguchi also won two World Figure Skating Championships in 1991 and 1992 and a U.S. Figure Skating Championships in 1992.
1973: Actor Lon Chaney Jr., the son of famous silent film actor Lon Chaney best known for his starring role in the 1941 movie "The Wolf Man," dies of heart failure at age 67 in San Clemente, Calif. Chaney also reprised his most famous role in various crossover films and was also known for playing other classic monsters, including Frankenstein's monster in 1942's "The Ghost of Frankenstein" and Kharis the mummy in "The Mummy's Tomb" (1942), "The Mummy's Ghost" (1944) and "The Mummy's Curse" (1944). He also played the title character, Count Alucard -- Dracula spelled backward -- in 1943's "Son of Dracula." He also had roles in "Of Mice and Men," "High Noon" and "The Defiant Ones."
1977: Brock Lesnar, mixed martial artist and professional wrestler, is born in Webster, S.D.
1978: Actor Topher Grace, best known for the sitcom "That '70s Show" and movies like "In Good Company," "Spider-Man 3" and "Predators," is born in New York City.
1978: Actress Michelle Rodriguez, best known for movies such as "Girlfight," "The Fast and the Furious," "Resident Evil" and "Avatar" (pictured), is born in San Antonio, Texas.
1979: The Chicago White Sox host "Disco Demolition Night" at Comiskey Park. The event, which included an on-field detonation of a crate of disco records, was marred by a near-riot that ensued after rowdy fans surged onto the field. The game was called and the White Sox later forfeited.
1982: "E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial" breaks box-office records by surpassing the $100-million mark of ticket sales in the first 31 days of its opening. Less than a year later that record was broken by "Return of the Jedi," which made the $100-million mark in 23 days. Several films, including "The Avengers," "The Dark Knight" and "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2," now hold the current record of two days.
1984: Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale names U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate, making her the first woman to run for vice president on a major party ticket.