1769: Napoleon Bonaparte, the French military officer and emperor of France, is born in Ajaccio, Corsica.
1843: Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.
1877: Thomas Edison coins the telephone greeting "Hello" by suggesting the use of the word to the president of the Telegraph Company to answer the phone instead of "Ahoy, ahoy" as suggested by Alexander Bell.
1860: Florence Harding, the first lady of the United States from 1921 to 1923 as the wife of President Warren G. Harding, is born Florence Kling in Marion, Ohio.
1912: Julia Child, American cook and TV personality, is born in Pasadena, Calif.
1914: While Frank Lloyd Wright is working in Chicago, Julian Carlton, a male servant from Barbados who had been hired several months earlier, sets fire to the living quarters of the architect's Wisconsin home, Taliesin, murders seven people and burns the living quarters to the ground. The dead include Wright's lover, Mamah Borthwick Cheney; her two children; a gardener; a draftsman named Emil Brodelle; a workman; and another workman's son. Carlton swallowed muriatic acid immediately following the attack in an attempt to kill himself, but died from starvation in jail seven weeks after the incident.
1914: The Panama Canal officially opens to traffic with the transit of the cargo ship SS Ancon.
1923: Actress and singer Rose Marie, whose most famous role was television comedy writer Sally Rogers on the sitcom "The Dick Van Dyke Show," is born Rose Marie Mazetta in New York City. A veteran of vaudeville, her career included film, records, theater, night clubs and television, and she also had a successful singing career as a child, performing as Baby Rose Marie.
1935: Cowboy and film star Will Rogers (standing on the wing) and the famed aviator Wiley Post (by the propeller) are killed when their plane develops engine problems at takeoff and crashes in Barrow, Alaska.
1935: Paul Signac, the French neo-impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the pointillist style, dies of septicemia at age 72 in Paris, France. Signac is seen here in Seurat's portrait of him.
1939: "The Wizard of Oz" premieres at at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, Calif. The movie opened nationwide 10 days later on Aug. 25.
1941: Cpl. Josef Jakobs is executed by firing squad at the Tower of London at 7:12 am, making him the last person to be executed at the Tower for treason. The German spy had been caught shortly after parachuting into the United Kingdom on Jan. 31, 1941.
1945: Japan surrenders to end World War II.
1945: Pro Football Hall of Fame guard Gene Upshaw, who played for the Oakland Raiders for 15 seasons, is born in Robstown, Texas. Upshaw, a six-time Pro Bowl selection, won two Super Bowls with the Raiders and later served as the executive director of the National Football League Players' Association (NFLPA).
1946: Alfred Hitchcock's spy thriller "Notorious," starring Cary Grant, Ingrid Bergman and Claude Rains, premieres in New York City. The movie became one of the biggest hits of the year and received Academy Award nominations for its screenplay and Best Supporting Actor for Rains.
1948: The Republic of Korea is established south of the 38th parallel north.
1954: Author and journalist Stieg Larsson, best known for "The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo" series of books, is born in Skelleftehamn, Sweden.
1958: Buddy Holly and Maria Elena Santiago are married in a private ceremony at his parents' home in Lubbock, Texas. The couple got married less than two months after their first date -- during which Holly proposed -- and were married for less than six months before Holly's death in a plane crash.
1965: The Beatles play to nearly 60,000 fans at Shea Stadium in New York City, in an event later seen as marking the birth of stadium rock.
1968: Actress Debra Messing, best known for the TV series "Will & Grace" and "Smash," is born in Brooklyn, N.Y.
1969: The Woodstock Music and Art Festival opens in the town of Bethel, N.Y.
1972: Actor and film director Ben Affleck is born Benjamin Géza Affleck-Boldt in Berkeley, Calif. He found fame after writing and starring in the movie "Good Will Hunting" along with Matt Damon, with the pair earning an Academy Award for the film's screenplay. As an actor, he's gone on to star in movies such as "Chasing Amy," "Armageddon," "Pearl Harbor" and "Daredevil." He's also directed the movies "Gone Baby Gone," "The Town" and "Argo," the last of which won him the Golden Globe Award, BAFTA, and Directors Guild Award for Best Director, and the Golden Globe Award, BAFTA, the Producers Guild Award, and the Academy Award for Best Picture.
1974: Actress Natasha Henstridge, best known for movies such as "Species" and "The Whole Nine Yards" and the TV series "She Spies" and "Eli Stone," is born in Springdale, Newfoundland, Canada.
1978: Beach volleyball player Kerri Walsh Jennings (left) is born in Santa Clara, Calif. She's seen here with her teammate Misty May-Treanor, with whom she won gold medals at the 2004, 2008, and 2012 Summer Olympics.
1979: The movie "Apocalypse Now," starring Marlon Brando, Robert Duvall and Martin Sheen and directed by Francis Ford Coppola, opens in theaters. The movie was honored with the Palme d'Or at Cannes, and nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Drama. In addition, Coppola and Duvall both won Golden Globes and BAFTA Awards for the film.
1979: Led Zeppelin releases their last album together, "In Through The Out Door."
1990: Actress Jennifer Lawrence, an Academy Award winner for "Silver Linings Playbook" also known for her roles in "The Hunger Games," "Winter's Bone" and "X-Men: First Class," is born in Louisville, Ky.
1991: Paul Simon plays a free concert at New York's Central Park in front of an estimated 750,000 people.
1995: In South Carolina, Shannon Faulkner becomes the first female cadet to enroll at The Citadel following a lawsuit against the military academy. She would drop out less than a week later.
1998: The Real Irish Republican Army, a splinter group of former Provisional Irish Republican Army members, carries out a car bomb attack in Omagh, Northern Ireland, killing 29 and injuring another 220. The BBC describes the attack as "Northern Ireland's worst single terrorist atrocity" and Sinn Fein leaders Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness condemn the attack and the RIRA itself.
2007: An 8.0-magnitude earthquake off the Pacific coast devastates Ica and various regions of Peru, killing 519 and injuring 1,366.