1763: The 1763 Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War, with France ceding Quebec to Great Britain.
1890: Writer Boris Pasternak (left), best known as the author of "Doctor Zhivago," is born in Moscow, Russian Empire. Pasternak won the Nobel Prize for Literature for the book in 1958, but was forced to decline the prize due to the reaction of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which had refused publication of the novel and campaigned against it, regarding some passages as anti-Soviet.
1893: Actor and comedian Jimmy Durante, whose distinctive clipped gravelly speech, jazz-influenced songs, and large nose made him one of America's most popular personalities of the 1920s through the 1970s, is born in Brooklyn, N.Y. A vaudeville star and radio personality by the mid-1920s, Durante scored a major hit record in 1934 with his own novelty composition "Inka Dinka Doo," which became his theme song for the rest of his life. He went on to star on Broadway and later appeared in movies such as "The Wet Parade," "Broadway to Hollywood," "The Man Who Came to Dinner," "Ziegfeld Follies" and "It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World." He died of pneumonia at age 86 on Jan. 29, 1980.
1906: HMS Dreadnought, the first of a revolutionary new breed of battleships, is christened and launched by King Edward VII. The ship featured an "all-big-gun" main battery of 10 12-inch guns and was the first battleship to be powered by steam turbines, making her the fastest battleship in the world at the time of her completion.
1906: Actor Lon Chaney Jr., the son of famous silent film actor Lon Chaney best known for his starring role in the 1941 movie "The Wolf Man," is born Creighton Tull Chaney in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Territory. Chaney also reprised his most famous role in various crossover films and was also known for playing other classic monsters, including Frankenstein's monster in 1942's "The Ghost of Frankenstein" and Kharis the mummy in "The Mummy's Tomb" (1942), "The Mummy's Ghost" (1944) and "The Mummy's Curse" (1944). He also played the title character, Count Alucard -- Dracula spelled backward -- in 1943's "Son of Dracula." He also had roles in "Of Mice and Men," "High Noon" and "The Defiant Ones." He died of heart failure at age 67 on July 12, 1973.
1923: Wilhelm Röntgen, the German physicist who discovered X-rays in 1895, earning him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901, dies from carcinoma of the intestine at age 77 in Munich, Germany.
1930: Actor Robert Wagner, best known for starring in the television shows "It Takes a Thief," "Switch" and "Hart to Hart," is born in Detroit, Mich.
1937: Singer-songwriter and pianist Roberta Flack, best known for the No. 1 singles "The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face," "Killing Me Softly with His Song" and "Feel Like Makin' Love," is born in Black Mountain, N.C. Flack won the 1973 Grammy Record of the Year for "The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face" and won the same award in 1974 for "Killing Me Softly with His Song," making her the first artist to win the award in consecutive years.
1939: Pope Pius XI, the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state in February 1929, dies at age 81 in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City. Pius was also known for being loudly outspoken against Nazi Germany and spend the last months of his life determined to call the world's attention to Adolf Hitler's atrocities.
1940: The first "Tom and Jerry" animated short, created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, is released by MGM. The short, "Puss Gets the Boot," saw the characters originally named Jasper and Jinx. It was with the second release, 1941's "The Midnight Snack," that the characters were explicitly named Tom and Jerry. "Puss Gets the Boot" earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Short Subject: Cartoons.
1949: The play "Death of a Salesman" by Arthur Miller opens at the Morosco Theatre in New York City. The production would run for 742 performances and earn the 1949 Pulitzer Prize for Drama and the Tony Award for Best Play.
1950: Swimmer Mark Spitz, a nine-time Olympic gold medalist, is born in Modesto, Calif. Spitz won seven gold medals at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, an achievement only surpassed when Michael Phelps won eight golds at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Spitz also won four medals at the 1968 Summer Olympic in Mexico City, two gold, a bronze and a silver.
1955: Professional golfer Greg Norman, who spent 331 weeks as the world's No. 1 ranked golfer in the 1980s and 1990s, is born in Mount Isa, Australia. Norman, who is nicknamed The Shark, has won more than 85 international tournaments in his career, including two majors: The Open Championship in 1986 and 1993.
1957: Author Laura Ingalls Wilder, who wrote the "Little House" series of books based on her childhood in a pioneer family, dies at age 90 in Mansfield, Mo.
1961: TV journalist and former political adviser George Stephanopoulos is born in Fall River, Mass. Stephanopoulos rose to early prominence as a communications director for the 1992 U.S. presidential campaign of Bill Clinton, later becoming White House communications director then senior advisor for policy and strategy before departing in December 1996. Today he is chief political correspondent for ABC News, co-anchor of ABC News' "Good Morning America" and host of ABC's Sunday morning "This Week."
1962: The Soviet Union exchanges captured American U-2 spy plane pilot Francis Gary Powers, along with American student Frederic Pryor, for Soviet KGB Col. Vilyam Fisher, known by the alias "Rudolf Abel," who had been caught by the FBI and tried and jailed for espionage in 1957. The exchange occurred on the Glienicke Bridge connecting Potsdam, East Germany, to West Berlin.
1964: Politically conservative TV and radio host, political commentator and author Glenn Beck is born in Everett, Wash.
1967: The 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, clarifying the succession rules to the Presidency, requiring the appointment of a vice-president when that office became vacant, and instituting new measures in the event of presidential disability. Since its ratification, two men have ascended to the vice presidency under the rules set out by the 25th Amendment, Gerald Ford (left), who later ascended to the presidency after Richard Nixon's resignation, and Nelson Rockefeller (right), who was chosen as Ford's vice president.
1967: Actress Laura Dern, best known for movies such as "Blue Velvet," "Wild at Heart" and "Jurassic Park," is born in Los Angeles, Calif. She's seen here (right) with her mother, actress Diane Ladd, and her father, actor Bruce Dern.
1971: Carole King's "Tapestry" album is released. It would go on to become the longest charting album by a female solo artist, staying on the Billboard 200 chart for 302 weeks, and sell 24 million copies worldwide. Its stay at No. 1 on the chart for 15 consecutive weeks in 1971 also gave it the record for the most weeks at No. 1 by a female solo artist for more than 40 years until surpassed by Adele's "21" in 2012.
1972: David Bowie plays his first gig under the persona, Ziggy Stardust, at the Toby Jug pub in Tolworth, London. Bowie's flamboyant, androgynous alter ego was spearheaded by the hit single "Starman" and the album "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars."
1974: Actress Elizabeth Banks, best known for movies such as "The 40-Year-Old Virgin," "Seabiscuit," "Invincible" and "The Hunger Games," is born Elizabeth Irene Mitchell in Pittsfield, Mass.
1978: Van Halen releases their self-titled debut album. The album, which peaked at No. 19 on the U.S. Billboard 200 album chart, featured songs such as "Runnin' with the Devil," the Kinks cover "You Really Got Me," "Ain't Talkin' 'bout Love" and "Jamie's Cryin'." Since its release, it has become to be regarded as one of rock 'n' roll's greatest debut albums.
1989: Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first black person to lead a major American political party. Brown helped run Bill Clinton's successful 1992 presidential run and Clinton appointed him secretary of Commerce in 1993. He was killed, along with 34 others, in a 1996 plane crash in Croatia.
1991: Actress Emma Roberts, best known for her TV roles on "Unfabulous" and "American Horror Story: Coven," and in the movies "Hotel for Dogs," "Valentine's Day" and "Scream 4," is born in Rhinebeck, N.Y. Roberts is also the daughter of actor Eric Roberts and the niece of actress Julia Roberts.
1992: Author Alex Haley, best known as the author of the 1976 book "Roots: The Saga of an American Family" and the co-author of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X," dies of a heart attack at age 70 in Seattle, Wash.
1992: Mike Tyson is convicted in Indianapolis of raping Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, on July 19, 1991. The following month the boxer would be sentenced to six years in prison. He was released in March 1995 after serving three years of his sentence.
1993: The live interview "Michael Jackson Talks to Oprah Winfrey" airs on ABC. The rare interview with the pop singer would become the fourth most watched event in American television history as well as the most watched interview ever, with an audience of 36.5 million. During the interview, Jackson for the first time openly accused his father, Joe Jackson, of physically and emotionally abusing him during incessant rehearsals as a child. He also denied tabloid rumors that he had bought the bones of the Elephant Man, slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber, or bleached his skin, stating for the first time that he had vitiligo, a condition that causes depigmentation of parts of the skin.
1996: The IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov, becoming the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion under regular time controls. However, Kasparov would finish out the six-game match with three wins and two draws, beating Deep Blue. On May 11, 1997, an upgraded version of the machine, with human intervention between games, won the second six-game match against Kasparov by two wins to one with three draws.
1997: Six days after finding O.J. Simpson liable in the death of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ron Goldman and ordering him to pay $8.5 million in compensatory damages to the Goldman family, a civil jury in California awards $25 million in further punitive damages to the families of Goldman and Brown Simpson.
1997: Actress Chloë Grace Moretz, best known for her movie roles in "(500) Days of Summer," "Kick-Ass," "Let Me In," "Hugo" and the 2013 remake of "Carrie," is born in Atlanta, Ga.
2000: Actor Jim Varney, best known for his role as Ernest P. Worrell, who was used in numerous TV commercial campaigns and movies, dies of lung cancer at age 50 in White House, Tenn. Varney made nine movies as his "Ernest" character, starting with 1987's "Ernest Goes to Camp" (pictured) and ending with 1998's "Ernest in the Army." He also played Jed Clampett in the 1993 movie version of "The Beverly Hillbillies" and voiced Slinky Dog in the first two "Toy Story" movies.
2003: Professional wrestler Curt "Mr. Perfect" Hennig dies of acute cocaine intoxication at age 44 in Tampa, Fla. A WWE Hall of Fame inductee in 2007, Henning is recognized by the WWE as a one-time world champion, having held the AWA World Heavyweight Championship for 373 days, which was the seventh-longest reign in history. He was also a two-time WWF Intercontinental Champion and was the longest-reigning such champion of the 1990s.
2004: Rapper-producer Kanye West releases his debut album, "The College Dropout." The album was an instant success, debuting at No. 2 on the Billboard 200 and selling 441,000 copies in its first week on its way to eventually selling more than four million copies worldwide. It was promoted by the singles "Through the Wire," "Slow Jamz," "All Falls Down," "Jesus Walks" and "The New Workout Plan," all of which saw chart success.
2005: Playwright Arthur Miller, whose plays include "All My Sons," "Death of a Salesman" and "The Crucible," dies at age 89 in Roxbury, Conn., of heart failure after a battle against cancer, pneumonia and congestive heart disease.
2005: North Korea announces that it has nuclear weapons and plans to pull out of six-party talks aimed at shutting down its nuclear program, blaming the Bush administration's intention to "antagonize, isolate and stifle it at any cost." It would eventually rejoin the talks in July 2005.
2007: Gen. David Petraeus takes over as commanding general of the Multi-National Force – Iraq, overseeing all coalition forces in Iraq.
2008: Actor Roy Scheider, best known for playing Police Chief Martin C. Brody in the first two "Jaws" movies, dies of multiple myeloma at age 75 in Little Rock, Ark. Scheider also earned Academy Award nominations for his roles in "All That Jazz" and "The French Connection," and was also known for his role on the science-fiction television series "seaQuest DSV."
2008: Amy Winehouse wins five Grammys, including Record of the Year and Song of the Year for "Rehab" and Best New Artist. While she performed during the ceremony, she had to do so via satellite from London after work visa issues prevented her from traveling to Los Angeles in time for the ceremony. Her awards tied her for the then record for the most wins by a female artist in a single night.
2010: Charlie Wilson, the 12-term Texas congressman whose exploits were the subject of a book and the 2007 movie "Charlie Wilson’s War," dies of cardiopulmonary arrest at age 76 in Lufkin, Texas. Wilson led Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone, a covert effort to funnel as much as $5 billion in arms to Afghan rebels fighting the Soviets in the 1980s. He was played by Tom Hanks in the movie. Before his secret role in Afghanistan, Wilson was better known for his playboy ways, earning the nickname "Good Time Charlie." He retired from Congress in October 1996 and became a lobbyist for Pakistan before retiring to Lufkin.
2011: The video for Rebecca Black's song, "Friday," is uploaded to YouTube for the first time. While the video initially garnered little attention, it went viral after comedian Michael J. Nelson, best known for "Mystery Science Theater 3000," tweeted a link to it a month later, calling it the "worst video ever made." By June 16, 2011, when the video was removed from YouTube due to legal disputes between Black and record label ARK Music Factory, it had amassed more than 167 million views and inspired numerous parody videos and remixes. The video was uploaded again to Black's personal YouTube channel on Sept. 16, 2011, and has since gathered more than 60 million more views.
2014: Shirley Temple-Black, who started her film career at the age of 3 and starred in hit films such as "Curly Top," "Heidi" and "The Little Princess," dies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at age 85 in Woodside, Calif. Her popularity as an entertainer waned as she reached adolescence and she retired from film completely by the age of 22. In 1967, she ran unsuccessfully for United States Congress, and was appointed U.S. ambassador to Ghana in 1974 and to Czechoslovakia in 1989.