Published On: Dec 24 2013 08:27:32 AM CSTUpdated On: Dec 18 2015 09:59:42 AM CST
The U.S. was able to avoid a government shutdown when leaders in Congress agreed on a temporary spending bill. Here's a look back at what caused past government shutdowns and how they turned out, according to the Washington Post, Annenberg School and ABC News.
Sept. 30, 1976, to Oct. 11, 1976 (10 days): President Gerald Ford vetoed a bill funding the Department of Labor and what was then known as the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Ford claimed the bill didn't do enough to reign in spending. The Democratic-led House and Senate overrode the veto.
Sept. 30, 1977, to Oct. 13, 1977 (12 days): The Democratic-led House wanted to keep a ban on using Medicaid to pay for abortions, with one exception: if the mother's life was at risk. The Democratic-led Senate wanted to add exceptions for rape, incest and the mother's health, too. The existing policy was extended so differences could be worked out.
Oct. 31, 1977, to Nov. 9, 1977 (Eight days): The temporary solution that ended the previous shutdown expired before a compromise was made. Another temporary extension was signed into law.
Nov. 30, 1977, to Dec. 9, 1977 (Eight days): The second temporary solution expired. This time, the shutdown did end with a compromise: It was decided Medicaid dollars couldn't be used for abortions except in cases of rape, incest or if the mother's life was in danger.
Sept. 30, 1978, to Oct. 18, 1978 (18 days): President Jimmy Carter vetoed two bills with projects he opposed: a defense bill that included a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and a public works bill that included water projects Carter thought were wasteful. A health bill was also delayed because of an abortion dispute similar to the previous year's. Congress passed new funding bills without the projects Carter didn't like and kept 1977's abortion compromise.
Sept. 30, 1979, to Oct. 12, 1979 (11 days): Democrats in the House and Senate got into an argument over raising congressional pay -- the House wanted to raise it by 5.5 percent, but the Senate didn't. Additionally, the same abortion issue contested in the previous four shutdowns caused problems once again.
Nov. 20, 1981, to Nov. 23, 1981 (Two days): President Ronald Reagan asked for $8.4 billion in spending cuts. When the House of Representatives came back with a bill with more defense cuts than Reagan wanted and a proposal for a pay raise, Reagan vetoed it. Congress passed another bill with fewer cuts, which Regan also vetoed. An extension of current spending was signed to give more time to craft a compromise.
Sept. 30, 1982, to Oct. 2, 1982 (One day): Due to social events around D.C., Congress scheduled the vote on the spending bill too late to get it signed in time to prevent a shutdown.
Dec. 17, 1982, to Dec. 21, 1982 (Three days): Congress wanted to fund public works jobs programs, which President Ronald Reagan opposed, and Reagan wanted to spend money on a missile program, which the House opposed. The jobs and missile funding were both dropped, but funding was instead added to increase aid to Israel and give legal aid to the poor.
Nov. 10, 1983, to Nov. 14, 1983 (Three days): The Democratic-controlled House added $1 billion in education spending and cut foreign aid, two moves Reagan opposed. The two parties eventually compromised, reducing the increase in education funding and providing funds for Reagan's previously-nixed missile program, among others.
Sept. 30, 1984, to Oct. 3, 1984 (Two days): A spending bill was tied to crime-prevention funding, water projects and a civil rights measure. Reagan wanted the crime measure, but not the other two. A three-day extension was passed so the two sides could negotiate a compromise.
Oct. 3, 1984, to Oct. 5, 1984 (One day): It took longer than three days to reach a compromise. Ultimately, the water and civil rights measures were removed from the spending bill and a compromise was reached on the crime measure. Also, a measure funding the Nicaraguan Contras was added.
Oct. 16, 1986, to Oct. 18, 1986 (One day): President Ronald Reagan and the Democrats in the House disagreed on several points, including measures on labor contracts, the origin of goods and workers on oil rigs and aid to families. The House gave up several demands and got a vote on the welfare measure in return.
Dec. 18, 1987, to Dec. 20, 1987 (One day): President Ronald Reagan and the Democratically-controlled Congress disagreed on money for the Nicaraguan Contras. A deal was ultimately reached that gave the Contras nonlethal aid.
Oct. 5, 1990, to Oct. 9, 1990 (Three days): President George H.W. Bush insisted on a spending bill that included a deficit-reduction plan. When the Democratically-controlled Congress passed a funding bill without such a plan, Bush vetoed it. A deficit-reduction deal was ultimately worked out.
Nov. 13, 1995, to Nov. 19, 1995 (Five days): The Republican-controlled Congress passed a budget bill that raised Medicare premiums and required a balanced budget in seven years, which President Bill Clinton vetoed. An agreement was made to partially fund the government until a compromise was reached, and Clinton agreed to balance the busget within seven years.
Dec. 15, 1995, to Jan. 6, 1996 (21 days): This shutdown was over that seven-year plan to balance the budget. Republicans thought the economic forecasts Clinton used to create his plan were too optimistic. Republicans ultimately agreed to fund the government, and Clinton formed another seven-year plan using the lower budget projects.
Oct. 1, 2013 to Oct. 17, 2013 (16 days): A Republican-controlled House passed a budget plan that included a provision to defund President Barack Obama's signature health care plan, which had major provisions scheduled to start Oct. 1. The Democratically-controlled Senate refused to pass the funding bill with health care amendments attached. A shutdown commenced, and the health care law still went into effect. More than two weeks later, Congress reached a shutdown-ending, debt ceiling-raising deal that left the Affordable Care Act virtually unscathed.
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